Water
Updated October 30, 2011

DRINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH
It is popular in Japan today to drink water
immediately after waking up every morning.
Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its
value. We publish below a description of use
of water for our readers. For old and serious
diseases as well as modern illnesses the
water treatment had been found successful
by a Japanese medical society as a 100%
cure for the following diseases:
Headache, body ache, heart system, arthritis,
fast heart beat, epilepsy, excess fatness,
bronchitis asthma, TB, meningitis, kidney and
urine diseases, vomiting, gastritis, diarrhea,
piles, diabetes, constipation, all eye diseases,
womb, cancer and menstrual disorders, ear
nose and throat diseases.
METHOD OF TREATMENT
1. As you wake up in the morning before
brushing teeth, drink 4 x 160ml glasses of
water
2. Brush and clean the mouth but do not eat
or drink anything for 45 minute
3.. After 45 minutes you may eat and drink as
normal.
4. After 15 minutes of breakfast, lunch and
dinner do not eat or drink anything for 2
hours
5. Those who are old or sick and are unable
to drink 4 glasses of water at the beginning
may commence by taking little water and
gradually increase it to 4 glasses per day.
6. The above method of treatment will cure
diseases of the sick and others can enjoy a
healthy life.
The following list gives the number of days
of treatment required to cure/control/reduce
main diseases:
1. High Blood Pressure (30 days)
2. Gastric (10 days)
3. Diabetes (30 days)
4. Constipation (10 days)
5. Cancer (180 days)
6. TB (90 days)
7. Arthritis patients should follow the above
treatment only for 3 days in the 1st week,
and from 2nd week onwards daily..
This treatment method has no side effects,
however at the commencement of treatment
you may have to urinate a few times.
It is better if we continue this and make this
procedure as a routine work in our life. Drink
Water and Stay healthy and Active.
Please be a true friend and share this article
with all your friends you care about.
 


PURIFYING WATER


W A T E R



Water is the most important element in staying alive.

It is essential that every person have enough and it must be safe to drink. Calculate 1 gallon (roughly 4 liters) DRINKING water per person per day as a rule of thumb. Needs differ according to age, physical condition, activity and environment. This does not include water for cooking, bathing or pets. If you have a medium-size dog, for example, plan at least another 1 gallon of water for each dog per day, 1 pint per day for each cat.


Assuming clean and deodorized food-grade containers are used, untreated water straight from your tap should keep 6 months, but MUST be changed thereafter. Bacteria-free water, which means successful treatment by one of the accepted methods listed, will keep several years depending on heat, light, degradation of the container, etc.

Store your water away from paint and petroleum-based products, acids or anything releasing strong odors like fertilizer or household cleaners. While able to hold water, these lower grade containers are permeable to certain gases.


If you run out of stored water, you'll need to locate an alternate source. Especially in times of disaster, assume any water not stored or purchased is contaminated. It could look like a crystal clear stream and still be polluted. If the water you locate is brackish, first strain the debris through a paper towel, clean cloth or coffee filter. Then treat by one of the following methods.


BOILING - bring water to a rolling boil and maintain for a minimum of 10 minutes. For every 1000 feet above sea level, add one minute of boiling to the initial 10 minutes. If the water pot is covered, it will shorten the time to reach a boil. This method is recognized as the safest treatment.

LIQUID CHLORINE BLEACH - any brand - must be 5.25% or 6% sodium hypochlorite (like Ultra Clorox) and contain NO soap, fragrance or phosphates. Measuring by drops is more accurate and the preferred method.

1 GALLON / 4 LITERS WATER
Add 16 drops (1/4 tsp. / 1.25ml) chlorine

5 GALLONS / 19 LITERS WATER
Add 80 drops (1 tsp. / 5ml) chlorine


WATER PURIFICATION UPDATE

Clorox replaced their standard product with Ultra Clorox increasing the amount of sodium hypochlorite from a concentration of 5.25% to 6%. They have added sodium hydroxide, which they state does not pose a health risk for water treatment. Clorox made this change in order to reduce the size of their containers. It does not affect the amount of chlorine used to disinfect water. This is still the standard formula.

AMERICAN RED CROSS STANDARD

1. Filter water using a piece of cloth or a coffee filter to remove solid particles.

2. Bring water to a rolling boil for about one full minute.

3. Let it cool at least 30 minutes. Water must be cool or the chlorine treatment described above will be useless.

4. Add the required amount of liquid chlorine bleach in the table above.

5. Let stand 30 minutes.

6. If it smells of chlorine, use it. If it does not have a chlorine scent, add 16 more drops of chlorine bleach per gallon of water (or 8 drops per 2-liter bottle of water), let stand 30 minutes, and smell it again. If it smells of chlorine, use it. If it does not, discard it and find another source of water.


For storing water in 55 gallon drums, use 50ml or a scant 1/4 cup chlorine. Remember, these doses are for treated city water which has (or should) have a chlorine demand of zero. Field water will need more. GET A TEST KIT for free chlorine measurement so guess work is gone. Target treatment at 3-5ppm (parts per million) free chlorine for city water and 5ppm for field water.

If bleach is more than one year old, it loses approximately 50% strength. In this case, the amount of bleach should be doubled. After treating with chlorine, mix well and allow water to stand 30 minutes before using. Use this eyedropper for no other purpose. If the bleach is not dated, at time of purchase, note the date on the bottle with a permanent marker.


DRY CHLORINE - also called calcium hypochlorite has the added benefit of extended shelf life. Providing it is kept dry, cool and in an airtight container, it may be stored up to 10 years with minimal degradation. If one is wanting to keep chlorine in larger quantities, this is the item to store as it is readily available at swimming pool supply stores and many hardware and grocery stores carrying pool items and requires less actual storing space than its liquid counterpart.

For chlorinating water in rain tanks, Western Australia Health Dept. regulations state for first time chlorination, add 7 grams dry (1/4 ounce by weight) or 40ml (1.35 ounces) liquid per 1000 liters (264 gallons) and let stand for 24 hours before drinking. To maintain adequate chlorination, on a weekly basis add 1 gram dry (.035 ounce by weight) or 4ml (.135 ounces) liquid per 1000 liters (264 gallons) of water. Let stand for two hours before drinking.

NOTE: Calcium hypochlorite is the solid form with 65% strength and sodium hypochlorite is the liquid form with strengths about 12.5%. Household bleach is sodium hypochlorite (NaHOCl) of about 5% strength. Most household bleach labels will read 5.25% or 6%*

IODINE - if no instructions are provided on the container, use 12 drops per gallon of water. If the water is in question, double the amount of iodine. Mix well and allow the water to stand 30 minutes before using.

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE* - Peroxide is a perfectly acceptable disinfectant for water, as it oxidizes as does chlorine. There are a couple things with peroxide that make it differ from chlorine as a disinfectant. Peroxide degrades even more rapidly than chlorine and potency may be an issue if it is to be stored.

The other thing that makes peroxide more difficult to use is that testing for peroxide residual levels is difficult compared to testing for chlorine residuals. Residuals need to be measured to ensure disinfection is complete. This is dependent on the bacterial loading of your water source. There are various methods of testing for bacteriological levels, but measuring residual levels is much simpler.

"Residual" is that which remains from the original dosage and has not unreacted (potentially to prevent reinfection). Example: if one cup of water has 20 parts per million 'bugs' in it, the disinfectant dosage needs to be at least 20ppm but no more than 25 to prevent ill effects. A dosage of 23ppm (of the active chlorine component) will show a 3ppm free residual while showing a 23ppm total chlorine level (if the background is zero). Peroxide would potentially have the advantage of breaking down to oxygen and water, but its use is also made more difficult by that fact when measuring reacted components. A quick calculation to use daily is the required dosage in parts per million, times the volume treated in gallons, divided by 120,000 (which is a constant). This calculates the number of pounds needed to give that dosage. Unfortunately there is no simple answer.

PURIFICATION TABLETS - these tablets are either iodine or chlorine based. One or two tablets will purify one quart or one lit re of water depending on contamination of water and length of time allowed for treated water to stand. Follow instructions on the package. (Note: While economical and convenient, not every brand of purification tablet kills Giardia.)

STABILIZED OXYGEN - reports from people that have used this method feel it is more favorable than iodine and chlorine. Both iodine and chlorine have shown some side effects if used for an extended period of time and these treatments have a taste to them. Stabilized oxygen is neither harmful nor has a taste. Conversely, it has a number of health benefits.

For long term water storage, treat 1 gallon of already-chlorinated water by adding 10 drops of stabilized oxygen. For one gallon non-chlorinated water, add 20 drops.

To purify 8 oz. of Giardia-contaminated water, add 5 - 20 drops of stabilized oxygen.

Since this water purification method is less known than the others, here are some chlorine dioxide (a form of stabilized oxygen) products on the market: Aerox, Genesis 1000, Dynamo 2, Aerobic 07, Aquagen. We are not endorsing nor recommending any of these products; they are sources you may want to check out.

Note: For further information on Ion Stabilized Oxygen see Ion-Stabilized Oxygen Part 1 and Ion-Stabilized Oxygen Part 2


WATER PURIFYING UNITS - there are a number of water purifying units on the market. Before purchasing a purifier, there are several things to consider, durability/reliability (will parts break down with heavy usage?), how easy is the unit to pump, how much water output can you expect in a half hour, will this particular unit filter giardia and other bacterial agents, does it still work in brackish water, cost and availability of additional filters. For an overall excellent article on water contaminants, check SweetWater's FAQ.
If portable water purifiers are a new product to you, Byron Kirkwood of BA Products has written an informative article about the basics. It lists features to compare and gives an overview of two of the four brands listed below.

 

For Katadyn Water, MSR Purifier, Pur, British Berkefeld, or Sweetwater Purifiers:
BA Products
Back Country Store
Cabela's
Caribou Cry Outdoor Store
Epicenter
Northern Mountain
Outback Gear
Pur
REI
South Summit Corp

Walkabout Travel Gear
Walton Feed
Wildware Outfitters

TIP: To improve the taste of any treated water, pour water from one clean container to another several times. This will help re-oxygenate the water and remove its flat taste after treatment and storage.

Adding powdered drinks like Kool-Aid or Tang will help disguise any off-tastes in water. These two products are also good sources of Vitamin C. Instead of using powdered drinks, a pinch of salt per quart can improve treated water's flavor.

 


WINE-TREATED WATER - from digesting many romance novels over the years, I remembered reading about watered wine. While thinking "watered" wine did not sound terribly appetizing to adults, it was also fed to children. This made me wonder if there had been water shortages or was the water too unpalatable to drink.

 

One night Stan and I were discussing the Bible's instruction to "hurt not the oil or the wine." This conversation evolved into a Net search on the history of wine and oil which uncovered some interesting information. Olive oil has many interesting uses and excellent reasons for storing it. Among its versatile applications are fuel and lamp oil, treatment for burns and ulcers, soothing wounds, cooking and salad dressings; and anointing in religious ceremonies. Today it is also connected to reduction of breast cancer and heart disease.

Since ancient times, in countries like Israel, Rome and (more recently) France, water was too polluted to drink untreated. By mixing 1 part red wine to 3 parts water, sufficient purification was achieved. For killing bacteria in laboratory conditions, red wine ranked 3 to 4 times more effective than pure alcohol or tequila. The effective ingredient is believed to be phenol compounds enhanced from charred wood of the wine-aging casks. This is important because phenol compounds appear to be related to sulfur drugs previously used in basic antibiotics. (Source: Dr. Trichopolou, British Medical Journal discussing the Greek Villager's Diet.) The full article is here. Do not assume this method kills Giardia and Cryptosporidia, etc. View this treatment as secondary measures only.


USING SWIMMING POOL WATER - View your pool as "backup" water. Keep it treated; you never know when this water will be needed! Maintenance of the free chlorine residual will prevent establishment of any microorganisms. Maintenance levels should be kept to 3-5ppm free chlorine. To monitor this, you'll need a supply of chlorine testers. The problem with using swimming pools is that organics can enter through dirt, sweat, body oils and the inevitable kiddie tinkle. This can form chloramines which are not good to drink. Of course in a survival situation it's OK, but steps can be taken to minimize this.

Partial and complete water changes should be done when possible. Although impossible to make a general rule, change pool water at least 1-2 times a year and make partial changes after heavy use. In a sealed drum, water can stay good for years, but we still recommend changing it at least once a year. Now imagine going in and out of your drinking water a hundred times and then drinking it. Don't let clarity fool you, some crystal clear mountain springs have tested out to be laced with cholera.

Keep dry chlorine on hand as it has a much longer shelf life than liquid. Additionally, when the need arises to convert a pool to potable water, it's obviously too late to completely change the water. However, the residual chlorine should be elevated over 5ppm up to ten parts, then allowed to naturally dissipate. This should take a couple of days and ensure that any of the more tenacious bacteria is destroyed. If other stored water stocks are not available, remove the necessary pool water and boil it or just treat with chlorine to the normal 5ppm. It is best to err on the side of caution.

When adding solid chlorine, dissolve the granules in a bucket first, then add to the pool water; much better mixing will result. Without power, a clean paddle or oar should be designated as a mixer. Thirty minutes minimum contact time is needed before use, more if temperatures are cold or if mixing is poor.

For smaller amounts of water, if you still have power, boiling is a reliable treatment. However, boiling water is not an efficient use of fuel if it's scarce. Bear in mind, while boiling pool water is fine, boiling alone will not prevent re-infection from airborne contamination. Once water is boiled, a lower chlorine residual of 3ppm free is OK.

Make sure to store an adequate supply of pH balancers and available chlorine testers if you intend on drinking pool water. Chlorine loses effectiveness above 7.5pH; that's why pH control is important. Bromine chemistry will do the job in the higher pH ranges, but it's not approved for potable water. Use bromine disinfection for washing dishes, laundry, clothes and people.

You might consider a filtration system that removes the chlorine taste. Activated carbon in any form will remove chlorine, but remember,
once you remove the free chlorine, your water does not have any protection. It should be consumed immediately following chlorine removal.

In a pinch, highly chlorinated water can be trickled through the ashes from a fire that are suspended in a cloth or coffee filter or even a cut-off pants leg tied at the bottom, that will prevent ash from passing through while allowing the water to pass.

Covering the pool at all times when not in use is a very good idea; try to keep the cover clean and wash the area you put it on when removing it from the pool.


DISTILLED WATER* - Distilled water comes from steam and recondenses to liquid form. The purity of the steam and the temperature at which this occurs would make drinkable water as is. Problems arise when it comes in contact with air, dust, spores or whatever else that could be in, on, or about the container. Theoretically, if steam were produced and cooled and the condensate then put directly into a sealed sterile container, there would be no problem. Storage would require no chlorine. The argument could also be made that even if bacteria got into the condensate, what would it eat? Biological organisms require carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous to survive at all so the chances of having a problem are slim to none.

To be extra safe, treat it just to nip any potential contamination in the bud. If the container were near sterile and the process done in a clean and sealed manner, it would probably be fine. Chlorine or other purifying agent required would be absolutely minimal. For example, if typically 8 drops of chlorine per gallon is used, one would suffice. Chances are very minute that there would be a problem, but it's best to avoid even minimal risk.

As for the electric distiller, the only possible contamination of the condensate would be from chemicals that will volatilize due to the increased temperature. Again, the risk is probably in the 1%-2% range. If this is a concern from conducting a land survey for potential aquifer contaminants like agriculture or industry, then a carbon filter placed before the distiller will reduce the chances to near zero. Many typical water contaminants show inverse solubility with temperature and will have a tendency to form scale deposits in the heating chamber of the apparatus. There will be more problems with things staying in than going out! As the steam leaves, water contaminants will become more concentrated and the tendency to deposit will increase. This type of (primarily) mineral deposits can be removed by cleaning with a low pH (acidic) solution to dissolve them. The stuff found in water is good for us and by distilling it, you will remove a source of minerals and trace minerals. Interestingly, distilled water is a relatively poor conductor of electricity.

To sum it up, distilled water is pure and safe to store, but there are small areas of potential problems.

Comment on purchasing distilled water from the grocery store - those jugs degrade! When boating in Colorado, we used to keep distilled water of board for the batteries. If they weren't used in one season, the unopened jugs were stored in the basement in an undisturbed corner. One day I went down to that area of the basement and noticed a rather large area of wet floor wet. Picking up one of the gallon jugs, I saw fine holes all over the container like it had rubbed a porcupine. The jugs were about six months old and in the process of totally breaking down. If you're planning to use this water for storage, the container definitely has a "shelf life"! Also, if you plan on transferring the distilled water to another container, you risk airborne contamination unless chlorine is added.

Taste: before purchasing a lot of distilled water for drinking, you may want to try it first. Distilled water has a very flat, uninteresting taste. Check and see it makes your palate happy.

*Information on Hydrogen Peroxide and Distilled Water kindly provided by Robert Byrnes, degreed Chemist with Nalco Chemical Company and eight years as a Water Treatment Specialist with the US Army.

 

This information may be used by you freely for noncommercial use only with
my name and email address attached.

hollydeyo@standeyo.com
http://standeyo.com
Contents 1997-2002 Holly Deyo. All rights reserved.

Water Storage    

Georgia Lauritzen     
Food Science Specialist, Utah State University    

January 1999

FN 176

Our abundant domestic water supply is generally of little concern. However, situations might occur where the supply of safe water is interrupted. Interruptions could be for only short periods of time or natural disasters such as earthquakes could occur which would result in an inadequate or contaminated water supply for days. An emergency water supply is recommended in every household to meet these situations.

Amount of Water for Storage

Only short-term supply of water can be stored in most homes. Recommendations for the amount of water to be stored vary from one-half gallon to 1 gallon per day, per person, for food preparation and drinking purposes only. The Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense, states that a quart of water or other fluid a day will sustain life, but humans would be much more comfortable, especially in warm weather, with an allowance of a gallon per day. An additional to 1 gallon per day is recommended for washing, tooth brushing, and dish washing.

 

The amount of water for consumption might be reduced somewhat, depending on the total juices, soups, other drinks, and high moisture foods which are available. Other sources of water available in emergency situations are the water heater, water softener containers, and the water storage area of the toilet.

Containers for Water Storage

Many types of containers are available for water storage. The most commonly used containers are glass, plastic, and metal.

 

Glass: Glass provides a fairly effective container for storage but is easily broken and heavier than plastic. Glass in non-permeable to vapors and gases; however, water in glass containers should not be stored near gasoline, kerosene, pesticides, or similar substances.

Plastic: Plastic jugs are frequently used for water storage. These containers are light weight and fairly sturdy. There are many types of plastic containers manufactured. Generally polyethylene type plastics are safe for storing water. Some, however, are not recommended for food storage because harmful chemicals could leach into the food. Most plastics used in waterbeds are not approved food storage plastics. Plastic containers which have previously been used for food storage or which are being advertised as food storage products will be safe. Plastic jugs with secure lids, which have contained milk or other edible substances are safe for water storage, however, it is essential that the milk bottles be very thoroughly washed to remove the fat traces. Some light-weight gallon containers might split at the seams and leak. Chlorine bleach bottles may be a food approved plastic, but contain an anti-static agent which prevents accumulation of dust during storage and are thus not recommended. Since plastic is permeable to certain vapors, water stored in plastic should not be near gasoline, kerosene, pesticides, or similar substances. It is advisable to store plastic water containers away from direct sunlight.

Metal: Some metals, such as stainless steel, can successfully be used for water storage. A metal water storage container should be resistant to rust. A metallic taste can be picked up by the stored water in some types of metal containers. Water stored in metal containers should not be treated, prior to storage, with chlorine since the chlorine compound is corrosive to most metals.

Treatment for Stored Water

Water which is to be stored for long periods of time should be sanitized or disinfected. Be sure to use the best quality water possible for storage. Water from a system with a state division of health "approved" rating is recommended. Likewise, the containers should be clean.

 

Heat Treatment: One effective way to store water is in clean canning jars. Fill clean fruit jars with water, leaving 1 inch of head space at the to of the jars. Place unused, clean lids and screw bank and process the water in a boiling water bath as fruit is processed. Quart jars should be processed 20 minutes, 2 quart jars for 25 minutes.

Chlorine Treatment: Liquid chlorine bleach can be used to disinfect water for long-term storage. One gallon can be treated by the addition of teaspoon of liquid chlorine bleach containing 4 to 6 percent sodium hypochlorite. (Most bleaches contain 5.25 percent.) This is equivalent to 16 drops of liquid chlorine bleach.

Closure of water containers should be secure. Stored water should be checked occasionally. If any changes, such as cloudiness or an odor are noted, replace the water and treat as before.

Emergency Disinfection of Water

Some emergency situations could occur where the only water which is available is contaminated by disease-causing organisms. In this case, the same procedures can be used as for treatment of stored water as follows:

 

Heat Treatment: Boiling is the most preferred method. This heat treatment requires water to be boiled in a vigorous rolling boil for 5 minutes. Taste may be improved by pouring the boiled water back and fourth from one clean container to another several times to incorporate air.

Chemical Treatment: Chemical treatment is less desirable than heat treatment because the effectiveness is dependent on several variables such as: (1) the amount of organic matter in the water, (3) water temperature, and (4) the length of time after the chemical is added until it is used.

Chlorine Treatment: Clear water can be treated with teaspoon (16 drops) of liquid chlorine bleach per gallon. Mix the water and allow it to stand for 30 minutes before using. If water is cloudy to the appearance, chemical treatment is not recommended. A slight chlorine odor should be detectable in the water. If not, repeat the treatment and let stand an additional 15 minutes before using. Use fresh bleach.

Water Purification Tablets: Different types of tablets are available for water purification purposes. Be sure to follow the manufacturer's directions for treatment and allow sufficient time for the chemical to work before using. Check the label for expiration date, since the tablets can become ineffective with time. Most tablets have a storage life of approximately 25 years unopened.

Commercial Water Treatment Units: Many extravagant claims are made by some water filter manufacturers concerning their ability to purify water. According to the Utah State Division of Health, concerning the effectiveness of their use, the following is quoted:

"In the emergency situation, neither these nor any other presently known home-use device can be relied upon to produce safe drinking water from any or all contaminated waters. A home-use device which may reduce one aspect of water contamination may have to effect on a different type of hazard in the same water."

Contamination by Radioactivity and Chemicals

No effective way for decontamination of water which contains radioactive or chemical fallout is available for home use. This decontamination should be supervised by the local or state health officers.